Pollution Enforcement

Monitoring Pollution Enforcement

Citizens need to know how to engage with their state and federal environmental enforcement agencies to effectively demand responses to pollution. Anti-pollution laws – Clean Water Act (CWA); Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); Clean Air Act (CAA); Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA); and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) – mean little unless the responsible agencies fairly implement and diligently enforce them.

The enforcement system is complex, with states handling much and the federal government often “backstopping” the states. This patchwork resulted from how the national laws evolved. Back in the 1960s and 1970s, when highly-varying state laws proved inadequate to protect the environment, then new federal regulations and minimum standards were put in place. States were allowed to have more protective standards than those minimum standards if they chose to. To this day, enforcement of many, but not all, parts of the CWA, SDWA, CAA, RCRA and FIFRA, as well as their connected state laws and regulations, is a state function.

The enforcement agencies at both of those levels of government often need prodding and “watchdogging.” Thankfully Congress anticipated that, as shown by the fact that most of the Acts have special “citizen suit” provisions that provide affected people with a direct path to Court to obtain enforcement when the agencies falter

Florida Pollution Enforcement Reports

Since 2004, PEER has examined Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) files to assess pollution enforcement. In a state heavily reliant on its natural beauty for tourism revenue, it has fallen far short of acceptable pollution levels primarily in its waterways and wastewater management.

Despite pledges to strengthen pollution enforcement, Florida state records show declines in virtually all meaningful measures. Notably, violations and significant noncompliance with pollution limits are growing while major enforcement actions are declining.

Federal Enforcement

Environmental Protection Agency EPA Building

The EPA uses administrative actions, civil actions, and criminal actions to enforce environmental laws that fall under the agency’s purview. Read More»

State Enforcement

Enforcement of certain environmental laws and regulations is delegated to state agencies, though EPA must often approve state-level programs. Read More»

Citizen Enforcement

Citizens can help fill in cracks in federal and state enforcement of environmental laws by filing citizen petitions and lawsuits.​  Read More»


The EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) website contains databases that users can search for facilities around the country and see past compliance records. Beyond just searching ECHO for pollution sources in your area, for example, you also can:

  • Search for EPA criminal and civil enforcement cases, including by individual corporations;
  • See enforcement-related maps;
  • Review trends in compliance and enforcement; and
  • Examine your own State enforcement agencies’ performances.

ECHO also includes “Latest Enforcement News” updates and information on the current Administration’s compliance and enforcement initiatives. The site also has a User Guide.

Other Helpful Sources on Enforcement

A Sheep in the Closet: The Erosion of Enforcement at the EPA , a report by the Environmental Data & Governance Initiative

Paying Less to Pollute, a report by the Environmental Integrity Project

EPA enforcement actions hit 10-year low in 2017, NBC News- Feb. 8, 2018

Environmental Council of States (ECOS), information-rich website on cooperative federalism from states’ perspective


Extension Request to Minnesota Public Utilities Commission – Great River Energy Cambridge Plant Permit Alteration – 04-18-2023 (PDF)

DESCRIPTION: Extension Request to the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission in the In the Matter of a Request for ...

Gold Mine Expansion OK Shows Broken Air Permit Process

Colorado Refuses to Fix Major Underlying Flaws in Approving New Permit

Hunters Point Festering Radiation Waste Woes

Navy Statements Mask Seriousness of Remaining Parcel G Contamination

Waste Incinerators’ Toxic Output Should Be Reported

Incinerator Chemical Releases Not Included in EPA Toxics Release Inventory

COMMENTARY | Suspend your disbelief—Minnesota Permitting Process Self-Corrects

An air pollution permit granted illegally in to a power plant in Minnesota has been suspended pending ...

COMMENTARY | Minnesota Agency Reverses Course on Illegal Permit

One Minnesota agency corrected its misstep and retracted a bad permit but time will tell if the others follow suit.

Letter to EPA Region 8 – Next Steps on Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment – 11-11-2022 (PDF)

DESCRIPTION: Letter to EPA Region 8 Administrator KC Becker requesting meeting on Colorado Department of Public ...

Colorado Balks at EPA Ozone Reducing Recommendations

State Resists Reforms Identified by Whistleblowers and Confirmed by EPA

EPA Says Hunters Point Will Never Be Fully Cleaned

EPA Plans to Ignore Prop P Mandate and Its Own Superfund Standards

Florida’s Waters Awash in Sewage Spills

Under DeSantis, More Inspections, More Pollution but Less Enforcement

EPA Validates Colorado Air Whistleblowers’ Charge

State Directed to Fix Illegal Permits and Cease Enabling Pollution Evasions

Op-Ed | An alarm is raised, little is done, and employees flee

Fed up with the state’s failure to regulate air permits, three state employees came forward about a year ago, but ...

REPORT | 2021 Florida Enforcement Report

Report on Enforcement Efforts by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection – Calendar Year 2021

Illegal Colorado Air Pollution Permits Targeted

First Major Test for State’s New Environmental Justice Action Task Force

Op-Ed | Why KC Becker holds the key to Front Range air quality

Colorado has been badly out of compliance with National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for a decade now. ...

Boeing Money Preceded Waiver of Pollution Penalties

Water Board Chair Reaped Boeing Cash Before Woolsey Fire Fines Forgiven

EPA’s Lax Methane Stance Decried

EPA’s 100-Year Standard for Methane Minimizes Climate Change Impact

Pollution Prosecution Plunge Continues under Biden

EPA Criminal Referrals, Prosecutions, and Convictions Not Rebounding

COMMENTARY | Opaque Decision-Making at The Colorado Air Pollution Control Division

Colorado Air Pollution Control Division has a convenient history of bad record keeping at a time when reporters, ...

Radioactive Buildings Dynamited Near L.A. 

State Permits Santa Susana Demolition Without Controls on Dust Plumes
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